Focus and Scope

The Intermountain Journal of Sciences (IJS) offers a regional peer-reviewed outlet for scientists, educators, and students to submit original research, management applications, or viewpoints concerning the sciences. We welcome original manuscripts dealing with Biological Sciences (Botany, Aquatic & Terrestrial), Environmental Sciences & Engineering, Health & Human Development, Humanities & Social Sciences, Mathematics, Statistics & Computer Science, Molecular Cellular Biology & Neurosciences, Pharmacology & Toxicology and Physical Sciences.

      Co-sponsors/publishers include the Montana Academy of Sciences, the Montana Chapter of The American Fisheries Society and the Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society. This journal offers peer review and an opportunity to publish abstracts and papers presented at annual meetings of the co-sponsor organizations. It is the intent of the governing bodies of the co-sponsor organizations that this journal replace printed proceedings of the respective annual meetings. Therefore, it is the policy of the editorial board that presenters at annual meetings of the co-sponsors be given priority in allocation of space and time of publication, although submission of other manuscripts for review and publication without regard to membership is encouraged.

Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Editorial Board

EDITORIAL BOARD

Gary L. Dusek, Chair Wildlife Biologist (Retired)

Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks Liberty Lake, WA

Scott Brandt

USDA Forest Service, Bozeman, MT

James Barron

Montana State University-Billings, Billings, MT

Robert G. Bramblett

Montana State University, Bozeman, MT

Dave Stagliano

Montana Natural Heritage Program Helena, MT

Matt Queen

Montana State University-Billings Billings, MT

Steve Gniadek

National Park Service (Retired) Columbia Falls, MT

Staff & Administration

Editor-in-Chief
Richard Douglass
Emeritus Professor of Biological Sciences Montana Tech of the University of Montana Butte, MT

Managing Editor

Terry N. Lonner

Chief of Wildlife Research & Technical Services (Retired) Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks
Bozeman, MT

Business Manager
Fred Nelson
Fisheries Biologist (Retired) Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks Bozeman, MT

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Aquatic Ecosystems
Dave Stagliano
Montana Natural Heritage Program 1515 E. Sixth Ave, Helena, MT 59602

Botany
Robert Harrington

Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks 1400 S. 19th Ave Bozeman, MT 59718

Terrestrial Ecosystems
Amy J. Kuenzi – Department of Biology
Montana Tech of the University of Montana Butte, MT 59701

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Holly G. Peterson
Environmental Engineering Department Montana Tech of the University of Montana
Butte, MT 59701

HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Vacant

HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES

Ismail H. Genc
College of Business and Economics University of Idaho
Moscow, ID 83844

MATHEMATICS, STATISTICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

Keith Olson
Department of Computer Sciences
Montana Tech of the University of Montana
Butte, MT 59701

MOLECULAR CELLULAR BIOLOGY AND NEUROSCIENCES

Richard Bridges
School of Pharmacy
University of Montana
Missoula, MT 59812

PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

Charles Eyer
School of Pharmacy
University of Montana
Missoula, MT 59812

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

Richard Smith

Physics Department Montana State University Bozeman, MT 59717