International Snow Science Workshop Proceedings - Montana State University Library

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3d terrain visualizations Riski Lavango abc of digging ablation stakes accident prevention card accident records accidents acoustic analysis acoustic driftometer acoustic emission monitoring acoustic snowdrift sensor active works aerial blasting aerial detonation routines aerial photographs aerodynamic aerodynamic entrainment aerosol avalanche agency administration air blasting techniques air blasts air space air temperature airborne optical remote sensing alaska alaska avalanche information center algebraic slip model alpine alps alta ski area ambient temperatures american avalanche association american avalanche institute American Institute of Avalanche Research and Education (AIARE) curriculum anchor tests andes mountalns andorra, pyrenees anena anna pasek foundation. anomalies anticrack model aosta valley aosta valley (nw italian alps) arctic slope areal variability armed services arps (advanced regional prediction system) art and poetry artificial avalanche artificial avalanche release techniques artificial neural networks artificial release artificial snow artificially triggered avalanches artificially triggering association of avalanche professionals atmospheric river augmenting snow austria avalanche austrian transceiver test 2001 automatic detection aval-1d avalanche avalanche accident avalanche accidents avalanche activities avalanche activity avalanche advisories avalanche advisory avalanche airbags avalanche alarm systems avalanche analysis avalanche and snow safety avalanche atlas avalanche avoidance avalanche awareness avalanche awareness program avalanche awareness training avalanche balloons avalanche barriers avalanche beacons avalanche blasting avalanche blasting techniques avalanche bulletin avalanche bulletins avalanche burial avalanche burials Avalanche Canada avalanche case studies avalanche catchment avalanche center programs avalanche chute avalanche classification avalanche climatology avalanche control avalanche control program avalanche control ropeway avalanche control work avalanche crown transects avalanche cycle avalanche cycles avalanche cyle avalanche damage avalanche damages avalanche danger avalanche danger evaluation avalanche danger levels avalanche danger scale avalanche deaths avalanche debris avalanche defense avalanche defense systems avalanche deposits avalanche detection avalanche disasters avalanche documentation avalanche dynamics avalanche ecology avalanche education avalanche education courses avalanche evaluation avalanche events avalanche experiment avalanche experiments avalanche fatalities avalanche fatality avalanche forecaster avalanche forecasters avalanche forecasting avalanche formation avalanche frequency avalanche hazard avalanche hazard forecasting avalanche hazard index (ahi) avalanche hazard mapping avalanche hazard maps avalanche hazard reduction avalanche hazard scales avalanche hazards avalanche impact pressure avalanche impract pressure avalanche incidents avalanche information avalanche information system avalanche instructors avalanche intensity avalanche internal dynamics avalanche investigations avalanche litigation avalanche load avalanche magnitude avalanche management avalanche management program avalanche mapping avalanche maps avalanche measurements avalanche mechanics avalanche mitigation avalanche model avalanche modeling avalanche motion avalanche observations avalanche occurrence avalanche path avalanche pathologies avalanche paths avalanche patterns avalanche permanent survey avalanche phenomena avalanche potential avalanche practitioners avalanche predication avalanche prediction avalanche preparations avalanche pressure measurements avalanche prevention avalanche preventive release avalanche problems avalanche professionals avalanche program avalanche programs avalanche prone sites avalanche protection avalanche protection gallery Avalanche Radar avalanche reduction avalanche release avalanche release system avalanche release zones avalanche rescue avalanche rescue dog program avalanche rescue equipment avalanche rescue systems avalanche research avalanche response avalanche risk avalanche risk management avalanche risk reduction avalanche routes avalanche run-out modelling avalanche running surface avalanche runout avalanche runout data avalanche safety avalanche safety program avalanche scenarios avalanche school avalanche search and rescue avalanche services avalanche shoveling avalanche simulation avalanche situations avalanche slope avalanche snow avalanche snow transport avalanche stability avalanche starting zones avalanche stimulator avalanche structure avalanche survival avalanche terrain avalanche terrain exposure scale (ates) avalanche threat avalanche training avalanche transceiver avalanche transceivers avalanche triggering avalanche type Avalanche Velocity avalanche victim avalanche victims avalanche video avalanche warning avalanche warning program avalanche warning strategies avalanche warning system avalanche warning systems avalanche warnings avalanche workshops avalanche zoning avalanches avalanches potential avalanches production avalanhce rescue avalauncher avalhex avaluator avaluator avalanche accident prevention card avaluator™ avalung avtools awareness “uniform” slope b.c.ministry of transportation and highways backcountry access backcountry activities backcountry decisions backcountry mapping backcountry recreationists backcountry skiers backcountry skiing balea glacial valley balloon devices bavarian matrix baxter state park bc ministry of transportation and highways beacon Beacon Basins bear pass belfort 900 best practice guidelines between-storm indicator big sky ski area big sky tramway project bilingual biodiversity biphasic wind-tunnel blade penetration resistance blaster boxes blasting device blowing snow bomb tram bomb wires bonneval-sur-arc pilot project boot packing boot packing program boundary conditions bozeman, montana bridger bowl bridger bowl ski area british columbia british columbia ministry of transportation and highways brittle ductile transition broken river avalanche brunauer emmett teller (bet) method burial victim buried melt freeze crusts buried surface hoar CAAML caaml (canadian avalanche association markup language) caches calibration canada canada and the united states canadian accidents canadian avalanche accidents canadian avalanche association canadian avalanche centre capillary barrier carbon carbon dioxide exclusion cart model cascade powder cats cascades ski areas catalan pyrenees catastrophe avalanche catastrophic avalanches catex technology cellular automata cellular automaton cellular automaton model cellular-automata cemagref center for snow science central idaho mountains centre of avalanche safety ceresole reale CFD chamonix-montroc avalanche changing climate charpy impact test chemical loading chilean andes chilkat and takhinsha mountains chinook pass chugach state park chute experiments civil defense organizations classification system classification trees clausius-clapeyron equation climate climate change climate reanalysis climatology cloud seeding clpa clpa maps cluster and discriminant analysis CO2 coefficient of friction cognitive biology collected testimonies colorado Colorado Avalanche Information Center (CAIC) colorado search and rescue board columbia mountains commercial instrument communication companion rescue comparison comparison method complex problems compression test computed tomography x-ray computer generated maps computer graphics computer model computer modelling computer models computer software computer system computer-aided computer-assisted forecasting computer-assisted-ldentification computerized system conflicting viewpoints constitutive law construction site content management system (CMS) continental climate coquihalla coquihalla highway cornice control methods cornice dynamics crack formation crack propagation crash test dummy criminal proceedings crisis management critical avalanche situations critical length crocus model crocusmeprapc software crocusmeprapc tool cross country skiing cross-country skiers crystal growth crystal habit crystalized cssl ct scans curvature cyberspace snow and avalanche center (csac) danger danger assessment danger level danger of avalanches Danger Patterns danger ratings danger scale danger scale 5 data acquisition data analysis data collection data storage system databases daytime warming déclenchement préventif des avalanches decision making decision making and human factors decision making process decision trees decision-making decision-making errors deep burials deep slab avalanche deep slab instability defense structures defense systems deflecting dam deformation deformation based pressure deconvolution dendrochronology dendroecology denoth-meter dense flow avalanches dense snow avalanches density layering depth hoar depth hoar growth depth hoar layers desert dust destroyed trees destructive avalanches detailed costs detonation developments and applications dgps dielectrics differential heat transfer digging digital enhancement digital resistograph digital snow board digital snow sonde (dss) disaggregated particles discrete element method (dem) discrete element modelling disturbance ecology diurnal evolution documentary film dodecane dolomites doppler radar measurements double burial downhill drag coefficient drainage basin dres drifting snow dry avalanches dry slab avalanche dry slab avalanches dry snow dry snow avalanche dry snow density dry-snow avalanches dry-snow slab dust dust deposition dye tracers dynam data exchange dynamic avalanche modeling dynamic water-entry value dynamical behavior of avalanches dynaval early warnings east riverside avalanche path eastern pyrenees eastern swiss alps EAWS ecmwf economic value education el teniente-chile elastic energy electric field gradient electrical conductivity electrical measurements electromagnetic measurements electromagnetic properties electromagnetism elevational gradient emergency planning programs emergency preparedness energy balance energy dissipation environmental effects environmental monitoring eolian deposition eolian effect europe european alps evolution of fluidised avalanches evolutionary psychology evolving public uses experimental mountainous location experimental test sites expert witnesses explosives exposure scale Extended Column Test Extended Column Test (ECT) extreme snow avalanche extreme snowfall extreme terrain eye witness accounts faceted crystals faceted melt faceted snow faceted snow crystals faceted snow layers fatalities federal funding fem simulation fernie snow valley pro-patrol fetch fetch storage fiber optic probe field data field investigation field observations field tests finite element models first aid fissures fitting system five step method flow dynamics flow-routing algorithms fmcw radar fmcw radar surveys FOCUS force measurements force-controlled force-distance signal forecast model forecast models forecast production forecasted weather event forecasting forecasting database forecasting model forecasting program forecasting snow water forecasting system forest forest avalanche forest service forests fracture energy fracture initiation fracture line profiles fracture lines fracture mechanics fracture propagation fractured slopes france french alps french alps and pyrenees french avalanche french avalanche forecast services french choices french forestry administration french forests french mountain guides association french operational chain french pyrenees (1958-2008 french snow avalanche french territory frequency frequency controversy Fresh-fallen snow Friction Factor full-depth avalanches full-scale avalanche fundamental studies fusion future role gallatin national forest galtur avalanche gamma distributed snow gas absorption method gas explosive gazex geliniv general avalanche forecast geographic information system (gis) geographic information systems geographical visualization geohazard geoinformation technology geovisualization gis gis database gis model glacier national park glacier national park, montana glide glide avalanche glide avalanches glide crack activity gliding of skis global change global positioning systems (gps) goals for the future goat lick bridge going-to-the-sun road google map gpr GPS tracking gradient metamorphis grain form grain type classification grain type classification (1 Articles) granular flows granular fluid phenomenon granular rheology graphic avalanche information Graphical Reduction Method gressoney la trinité ground penetrating radar ground temperature growth characteristics growth process gruvefjellet plateau ridge gswarm guidon cord hafelekar/ innsbruck hahn and nelson hand hardness handcharges hanging glacier harvested terrain hazard hazard estimation hazard evaluation hazard forecasting hazard management hazard mapping hazard mitigation hazard perception and preparation hazard reduction program hazard zones hazard zoning hazard-indicator maps hazards hbv model head formation heavy snowfall events heli-ski operations Heli-skiing helicopter bombing helicopter mounted rescue helicopter skiing helicopter skiing operation heuristic traps hierarchical bayesian change point models high frequency avalanches high-resolution imaging high-speed video recording highway 550 highway safety highways historical avalanche data historical overview historical records historical snow records hoar crystal hoarfrost hollow braid poly rope human avalanche interactions human error human factors human risk factor human triggered human triggered avalanches human-triggered avalanches hut-to-hut system Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) hydraulic properties hydroelectric project hydrological event hydrological sciences hydrology hypothermia hyrdros sensor i-90 snoqualmie pass ibuttons ice avalanches ice crystals ice engineering ice-dust clouds iceland iconographic avalanche bulletin image processing impact pylon impact stresses in situ measurements in-situ measurements in-situ tests incident command system (ics) indian avalanche influence of forest infoex information exchange information systems infrared photography infrared radiation thermography infrared thermography spot size infrasonic monitoring infrasound infrasound monitoring Injury severity scores (ISS) innovative devices instability instrumentation integrated database integrated vapor transport intensity of avalanche interactive cd interfacial crack velocities Interferometric synthetic aperture radar international snow science workshop interstate highway avalanche program investigation iron man issw steering committee italian alps italy jackson hole mountain resort jackson hole ski area japan jhsp’s fatality kids bike kinetic energy kinetic growth kinetic metamorphism klassische lawinenkunde kleiner blocktest Know Before You Go kootenay pass la plagne land-use controls large-scale flooding laser scanning lautaret pass road (french alps) layer friction layered snow leadership styles liability liberty bowl event lidar lidar (light distancing and ranging) lidar measurements liquid water liquid water content liquid water flow liquid water measurement liquid water movement loaded column stability test loaded snow local avalanche services lochaber, scotland long term simulation longyearbyen, svalbard lower austria LWCindex magnitude avalanche events major avalanches major element chemistry mammoth mountain man-made snow manitoba mountain marche, italy maritime climate maritime snowpack maritime svalbard mart maseguchi avalanche mass flux mass movements mavalanche maximum avalanche maximum snow water equivalent mechanical model mechanized skiing melt-freeze crust melt-freeze crusts melting season meltwater flowpaths memorial list mentoring mepra metamorphism meteorological and synoptical conditions meteorology micro search strip method microstructural arrangement microstructure microwave radar microwave radiometry mid-latitude volcanoes milford highway milford road military artillery military field exercises military weapons mining ministry of transport missing values mitigation mitigation action mitigation measures mitigation method mitigation methods mm5 mobile gun position system mobile information systems model model calibration model crocus model profile layers modeling modelled snow cover data modelling models modis mogot experimental watershed molktain slope molybdenum ore body monitoring basin-wide snowmelt montana avalanche advisory montana climate monte rosa massif (north-western italian alps) morphology mortality rate mountain catchment mountain climate monitoring mountain consultants inc. mountain ecosystems mountain guides mountain passes mountain safety inc. mountain seismic exploration mountain snow-cover mountain snowpack mountain studies institute mountain weather mountain winds mountainous instrumented site mountainous terrain mps method mr microscopy mt rose mudflow multi temporal modis data Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) multiple burial search multiple burials myth and truth NAEFS national atmospheric deposition program (nadp) national avalanche school national highway no. 17 national outdoor leadership school national parks national research council national weather service (nws) natural avalanche natural avalanche hazard natural avalanche paths natural avalanche triggerings natural avalanches natural hazard natural hazard early warning natural hazards natural snowfall natural terrain naturalistic decision making NCAR near infrared photography near surface facets near-surface faceted near-surface faceted crystals near-surface faceting near-surface facets near-surface metamorphism near-surface snow temperature nearest neighbor method new snow settlement new tool new zealand ngi’s ryggfonn test-site nitrogen pressure nivexc nivolog nivotest nmr imaging non-destructive quantification non-electric detonators non-persistent weak layers north atlantic oscillation north-east italy northern norway northwest avalanche center northwest avalanches northwestern himalaya norway numerical avalanche prediction numerical model numerical modeling numerical modelling numerical rutchblock Numerical Weather Prediction nx-log nxlog 2.0 o’bellx observation data observer-specific bias obstacle influence off piste ski off-piste official avalanche report olympic games online nwp-model open source implementations optical properties optical satellite remote sensing optimizing sampling strategy orographic precipitation model ouray counties out-of-bounds skiing pacific northwest paint brushes Particle Tracking Velocimetry pendular rings penetration resistance penetrometer penetrometer tips penguin slide periodic patterns permafrost terrain permakart permanent structures permasense remote monitoring infrastructure persistent slabs persistent weak layers phase changes photogrammetric photogrammetric methods photogrammetry photographic analysis photography physical and chemical properties piedmont western italian alps piezo-electric load cells pine marten lift pinpoint search pinpointing in a circle planning and management plastic wave plate-size effects plug fracture plunge pool poetic description police dog service polish mountain regions pollutants polyethylen portable weather station postcontrol avalanches potential avalanche release areas potential avalanche slopes potential avalanche terrain powder avalanche powder avalanches powder snow powder snow avalanches powder-blast pressures Precipitation precision blasting prediction of avalanche snow preferential detection preliminary tests presidential range pressure problem principles of operation probability assessment probe prolonged oxygenation Propagation propagation saw test Propagation Saw Test (PST) public safety public service questionnaire study queyras radiation radiation recrystallization radiation recrystallized radiative forcing railroad rain shadow effect rain-induced avalanches rain-on-snow rain-on-snow avalanches rain-on-snow event ram penetrometer ramer avalrt RAMMS software rana district rating systems recco rescue system receiver bandwidth reconstruction of snow recreational avalanche data recrystallization red value reflective properties regional and spatial planning regional avalanche regional stability regional warning regression equation release zones Remote Avalanche Control Systems (RACS) remote monitoring remote sensing remote weather station system rescue rescue (transceiver technology) Rescue at Cherry Bowl rescue dog training rescue dogs rescue operations rescue organization rescue plan rescue system rescue training resistometer rim flow risk risk assessment risk cartography risk communication risk evaluation risk management risk model risk reduction risk zoning risky terrain road closure road weather information systems (rwis) road-hit avalanches roads rock glaciers rockfall rogers pass romanian carpathians roofs of buildings ropeways in ski areas roughness effect royal canadian mounted police run-out distance runout distance russian foundation for basic research russian-norwegian project rutschblock rutschblocks ryggfonn, norway saddle peak avalanche safe backcountry skiing safe road site safe travel safety safety gear safran and crocus models safran-crocus-mepra saint-venant equation saltation samos-at samosat san juan mountains sastrugi satellite imagery satellite observed sca scale issues scaled laboratory experiments scales schippers company schmidty tension fence scotland scotland, search and rescue search instruments search methodology search strip search strip width searching in parallel searching strategies seasonal employment seasonal ice seasonal snow cover seasonal snowcover section-plane method secure mountain exploration seismic detection of avalanches seismic effect seismic response seismic sensor array seismic station seismic technique seismicity-induced avalanches self-organized critical system senorge model sensitivity analysis sensor frequency sensor web enablement sensors Sentinel satellites Sentinel-1A separation distance sequential forward generation settlement rates settlements shear deformation shear experiments shear failure shear stability shear strength shear stress sheer frame test shock wave compression shock waves shock-tube shovel shear test sibillini mounts signal detection theory simple calculations simple solutions simulation analysis simulation optimization sintering situation awareness skadi ski area ski area management ski area planning ski area rating ski areas ski friction ski guiding ski management ski model analysis ski patrolling ski resort ski runs ski season length ski slope ski slopes ski touring hut systems ski touring study ski-mountaineering safety skier triggered avalanches skier-triggered avalanches skiing skiing damages skiing fatalities skisim slab avalanche slab avalanches slab avalanching slab failure slab hardness slab properties slab release slab snow slab stiffness slab test sledders slf test-site slope scale slope stability slope steepness sluff management slush avalanche slushflow slushflow avalanche slushflow avalanches slushflow model slushflows small scale snowmaker smartphones snoqualmie pass snoqualmie pass, washington, usa snotel data snow snow accumulation snow and avalanche research snow and avalanche training snow and sand drifting snow and weather data snow avalanche snow avalanche dynamics snow avalanche models snow avalanche prediction snow avalanche victims snow avalanches snow behaviour snow bridge snow bridges snow burial snow characterization snow chute snow classification snow climate snow compaction snow cornices snow cover snow cover basin snow cover development snow cover distribution snow cover entrainment snow cover evolution snow cover forecasting snow cover model snow cover monitoring snow cover monitoring and modelling snow cover profiling snow cover simulation snow cover stability snow cover stratigraph snow cover stratigraphy snow cover structure snow cover variations snow coverage snow covered flat planes snow creep snow crystal snow crystals snow culture snow data snow data analysis snow deformation snow density snow depth snow depth observations snow drift snow drift simulation snow drifting snow education snow erosion snow evaporation snow event snow fence snow fence design snow fences snow fracture snow gliding snow grain snow growth snow guillotine snow hardness snow hydrology snow instability snow layer formation snow layer hardness snow liquid water determination snow making snow management snow mechanics snow melting snow metamorphism snow micro penetrometer snow microstructure snow mobile traffic snow model snow modeling snow models snow moisture snow net snow pack snow pack analysing system snow pack stability snow packs snow particles snow physics snow physics and mechanics snow pillow snow pillow stations snow precipitation snow pressure snow profile snow profiles snow profiling snow properties snow recreation snow redistribution snow reflectivity snow release water snow removal snow removal operations snow rheology snow runways snow safety snow safety plan snow samples snow samples, snow sampling snow science snow science researchers snow shed snow simulation snow slab release snow stability snow stability evaluation test snow stability test snow stablility snow stations snow storage snow storm snow strain snow stratification snow stratigraphy snow strength snow structure snow structures snow studies snow surface substrate snow surface temperature snow system science snow systems course snow temperature snow temperature profile snow tensile strength snow texture snow toughness snow transport processes snow transportation snow vaporization snow variability snow water equivalent snow wetness snow-block impact snow-soil interface snowbase snowcatcher snowcover stability snowcover stability tests snowdrift snowdrift accumulation snowdrift model snowdrift modeling Snowdrifts snowfall snowfall intensity snowfall measurements snowfence snowmaking system snowmass ski area snowmelt SnowMicroPen snowmicropen measurements snowmip snowmobile snowmobilers snownet project snowpack snowpack conditions snowpack model snowpack modeling snowpack properties snowpack stability Snowpack Test snowpilot snowpilot database snowpits snowsmart snowsports sntherm model social networks soil erosion solar radiation solid ortho-image solunar cycle south-norway (1914 - 2008) south-west norway southeast alaska southern alps spa spaceborne radiance sparse forests spatial and temporal variability spatial decision support system spatial patterns spatial reconstructions spatial variability specific surface area (SSA) spontaneous avalanche sprengmast stability stability (propagation tests) stability assessment stability evaluation stability test stability trends stable air standpipe precipitation gauge stanley avalanche area starting zone starting zones static equilibrium approach static gas system static permittivity stationary avalanche blasters statistical avalanche model statistical model statistical modelling statistics Stavbrekkfonna steel wire rope nets steep rock face storm cycle storm slabs strain strategic highway research program (shrp) strategic shoveling stratigraphy stress rates structural weakness stuffblock styria - austria styria, austria styrian avalanche service sublimation sun crust surface avalanches surface blasts surface characteristic surface hoar surface hoar crystals surface hoar growth surface hoar layer surface hoar layers surface stiffness surface warming surveys survival patterns susan jane avalanche path swe swe estimation Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) swiss alps switzerland synoptic avalanche forecasting synoptic scale storm tracks synthetic aperture radar systematic assessment taiga teaching methods technology telemetry telluride ski area expansion temperature temperature environment temperature gradient temperature gradients temperature sensor temporal and spatial temporal changes temporal evolution tensile strength tenth mountain division terminology standardization terrain terrain model terrain parameters terrestrial laser ranging system terrestrial laser scanning test repeatability Teton County, WY the chutes the snowball thermal behavior thermal conductivity thermal response thermo-mechanical controlled process thermography thick-section photography thin-section method thixotropy model three-dimensional snow three-dimensional structures tidal effect theory tignes ski patrol timberune time domain reflectometry time lapse photography time series model time-delay method tire performance topographic parameters topography tourist avalanches tower 4/6 snettisham toyama area track setting traditional aboriginal knowledge traffic flow traffic routes training guidelines transceiver rescues transmission frequency transport model tree wells tree-ring tribology trigger locations triggering triggering by sound tropical mountains ttba experiments turbulent avalanche flow turbulent mixture theory Turkey twenty-five years of accidents two network systems two seasons u.s. forest service u.s. highway 2 u.s./japan cooperative agreement uberschneesprengung unconfined slab avalanches undisturbed snow unequal grains ungaged areas uniaxial tests uniform slopes united states unpredicated avalanches unreported unusual avalanche events upside-down storm urban avalanche us highway 12 usa ski areas user survey utah avalanche forecast center uzbekistan valgrisenche-aosta valley vallée de la sionne test site valley clouds value of statistical life vapor transfer variability vegetation vegetation patterns velocimetry velocity-distribution vertical barriers vibration experiment victim rescue video visitor numbers voellmy model volcanic eruption volumetric mass production vortex generators vosges (france) wallowa mountains warm storms warming warning program warning service warning systems wasatch plateau wasatch range ski areas washington state highways water conservation water equivalence experiments water movement water outflow water resources water retention curve water supply water waves weak layer weak layer fracture weak layers weak snowpack weak snowpack layers weather weather conditions weather forecasts weather measurement weather models weather observation weather station weather stations weather triangle web enchanced education web-based services webmapping weissfluhjoch weissfluhjoch snow chute western alps western canada western tatras national park, slovakia wet avalanche wet snow wet snow avalanches wet snow layer wet snow slopes wet snow stability wet snowpack whistler mountain white risk whiz-bang applications widespread cycle wind wind drift snow wind erosion wind sensing wind transport wind tunnel experiments wind tunnel modeling wind velocities wind-drift snow current winter weather wireless sensors wolf creek pass worker safety world records Wyoming wyssen wyssen avalanche tower xml youth youth avalanche education yukigata