Item: Shear strength of natural and artificial depth hoar layers
Title: Shear strength of natural and artificial depth hoar layers
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 2006 International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, Colorado
Authors: Osamu ABE, Junrong XU, Jian LIU, Hiroyuki HIRASHIMA, Shigeto MOCHIZUKI, Satoru YAMAGUCHI, Takeshi SATO and Atsushi SATO, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Japan Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geograph
Abstract: Many data on shear strength and density of natural depth hoar layers were collected from Japan, west China and Alaska. Snow metamorphism experiments under temperature gradient conditions were conducted in a large cold room using two types of artificial snow that consist of dendrite or ice sphere particles, and shear strength and density for each layer were measured at the different stages. Eighty-three data on shear strength of natural and artificial snow layers were combined with two groups according to the grain shape, and were correlated with density by two types of equations for faceted and cup-shaped crystals. Based on the equations, the presented shear strength of cup-shaped crystals was smaller than that measured in North America with the same density, but the shear strength of faceted crystals increased quickly for snow density > 300 kg m-3.
Keywords: shear strength, depth hoar, avalanche occurrence
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