Item: Instrumentation for in-situ snow liquid water measurements
Title: Instrumentation for in-situ snow liquid water measurements
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 1996 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Canada
Authors: A.Denoth, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020, Austria
Abstract: Various methods for measuring the liquid water content of a natural snow cover are discussed. An error analysis gives suitable measuring quantities: methods based on the determination of the dielectric function (permittivity and total losses) at frequencies exceeding 10 MHz allow precise, rapid and nearly non-destructive measurements and are highly suited for field applications. The special design of the dielectric sensors depends on the actual measuring frequency: flat plate sensors of various geometries have been developed for use in the radio frequency regime (20 - 50 MHz), recently tested monopole-antennas with different probe-lengths, operated in the 100MHz to 3GHz frequency range have proofed their efficiency, and in the microwave X and K bands (8 to 16 GHz) reflection and transmission measurements have been performed. From broadband measurements of the dielectric function of snow with different stages of metamorphism and different liquid water contents simple relations between water content (volume basis) snow permittivity and density are deduced. Comparative measurements of the vertical distribution of water in a natural snow cover are presented.
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Keywords: snow, water, measurement techniques, dielectric sensors
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