Item: Acoustic detection system for operational avalanche forecasting
Title: Acoustic detection system for operational avalanche forecasting
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 1996 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Canada
Authors: v. Chritin, M. Rossj and R. Bolognesi, EPFL, De-Lema, CH-1 015 Lausanne, SFISAR, Weissfluhjoch, CH-7260 Davos
Abstract: Applied acoustics has recently come to the fore as a useful tool for improving avalanche forecasting by supplying the means of automatically detecting, in continuous real time, avalanche activity over a mountain range. Such information, which is impossible to provide from manual observations alone, due to weather, lack of visibility at night, masking relief's, etc..., is of major importance to forecasting systems - in particular for those using analogy based reasoning models. The acoustic system ARFANG cosists of four microphones combined in such a way as to constitutre an acoustic goniometer: the incident direction of sound waves - azimuth, elevation - are obtained from the calculated time delays of sound waves between pairs of microphones. Special microphones called ECHO were built and installed at Anzere ski resort (Switzerland). ECHOs are dedicated to infrasounds and are suitable for high mountain mountain topographical and meteorological conditions. The system including automatic signal recognition procedures demonstrated the possibility of using sounds to detect and localize avalanches over areas extending up to several square km. ARFANG is going to be interfaced to the avalanche forecasting system NXLOG - which uses avalanches observed in the past to produce predictions - with the objective of building an automatic avalanche forecasting tool.
Keywords: avalanche forecast, avalanche warning, sensor, acoustics
Digital Abstract Not Available