Item: Avalanche warning and hazard zoning in austria some new aspects
Title: Avalanche warning and hazard zoning in austria some new aspects
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 1994 International Snow Science Workshop, Snowbird, Utah, USA
Authors: Peter Holler, Institute for Avalanche Research, Rennweg 1 - Hofburg, A-6020 Innsbruck, Phone: 43/512/573933, Fax: 43/512/572820
Abstract: Extended Abstract: NEW REGULATIONS CONCERNING AVALANCHE WARNING 1. The new European Risk Scale. Instead of different hazard classes in each European country it was developed a standardized scale with 5 degrees. The risk scale was introduced in 1993 and is now valid allover Europe. Details were already published in Avalanche News No. 41 and Avalanche Review No.6 (Vol. 12 ). 2. New regulations concerning avalanche commissions in Tyrol. The so-called avalanche commissions have to be organized by each community itself, they are responsible for avalanche safety on highways and skiing areas, but their tasks were not specified exactly until 1992. As a result of an avalanche accident ( one person was killed on an opened ski-piste), new regulations for the foundation of avalanche commissions were elaborated. The provisions of the law (LAND TIROL, 1991), passed by the Tyrolean Government, do regulate the education and remuneration as well as the insurance cover for the commission members. HAZARD ZONING - ACTUAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS FOR THE FUTURE 1. Effects of catastrophic avalanches. The enactment of avalanche zoning in Austria was in 1975 (REPUBLIK OSTERREICH,1975,1976). The Red Zone includes areas which are endangered by avalanches in such a manner that the permanent utilisation of human settlements traffic is not possible; avalanche pressure of more than 25 kN/m must be expected. The Yellow Zone includes areas which are affected by avalanches, too, but maximum avalanche pressure is less than 25 kN/m . In 1988 a great avalanche event took place near to St. Anton; 7 were killed, several buildings were damaged in the Yellow especially the houses "Strolz" and "Zangerle" , as well as the "Tscholl"(Nr.480), which was destroyed co~pletely (Fig.1). calculated avalanche pressure was about 16 kN/m • During a study tour of avalanche experts (AGERER, 1989) the hazard map of St. Anton was discussed intensively. Nearly most participants of the group agreed, that the buildings in the Yellow Zone were not designed according to the special building regulations of the hazard map. 2. Effects of endangered forests Negative effects on hazard zoning must also be expected as a result of non-cultivated mountain forests. In the so-called Putzenwald (western Tyrol/St. Anton) new avalanches released because of lacking cultivation and increasing damages by deer (MAYER,1984; GASPERL, 1989). The consequences for the settlement in the valley (new hazard zones) are shown in Fig.2. In order to consider this new situation FIEBIGER (1989) proposed to elaborate a new hazard map with special regard to the negative dynamics of stand development. 3. Effects of tourism limited building land in some parts of Northern Tyrol we can increasing interest to reduce Red Zones in order to break for settlements (especially to establish new hotels and Due to observe an new ground apartments) To stop this dangerous development rigorous land use planning is required in future.
Keywords: risk scale, safety, hazard zoning
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