Item: Liquid water distribution in a high altitude spring snowpack
Title: Liquid water distribution in a high altitude spring snowpack
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 1976 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta
Authors: T. Carroll
Abstract: It is well known that liquid water within a snowpack reduces the mechanical strength of the snow (Wakahama, 1975) by reducing the number of ice-bonds between the snow grains. Because the mechanical and shear strength of snow may vary with its liquid water content, it is important to study the permeation process, flow rates, and distribution of liquid water within the snowpack. To demonstrate the reduced strength of snow in the presence of liquid water, Wakahama (1975) measured the hardness of the snowpack at different times. The hardness of the surface layer decreased remarkably as the liquid water content increased. The Kinosita hardness value diminished by a factor of 50 when the liquid water content increased from 0% by volume in the morning to 20-50% at noon (Wakahma, 1975).
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Keywords: wet avalanche, forecasting, snow strength
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