Item: Explosive shock wave compression in snow: effects of explosive orientation and snowpack compresison
Title: Explosive shock wave compression in snow: effects of explosive orientation and snowpack compresison
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 2006 International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, Colorado
Authors: Christopher Binger, Jared Nelsen, and Kristofor A. Olson University of Alta, Alta, Utah
Abstract: Explosives are crucial in the mitigation of avalanche hazards. A greater knowledge of the compressive effects of snow relative to explosive location and direction is needed for more effective placement based on snow pack configuration. Hand hardness tests and layer tracking were used to explore the compressive effects of explosives in snow. Four 2 lb charges were detonated at different locations and blasting cap orientations relative to determine the compressive effects of the shock wave. Results showed layer compression specific to the explosive location and blast orientation. It was confirmed that the air blast distributed the shock wave to the largest area most effectively; however, the surface shots produced the highest localized layer compression based on blasting cap orientation. Results showed that explosive location and orientation relative to the snow surface can be tailored for the best results based on the configuration of the snow pack. Further evaluation is recommended to produce more reliable results in a broader range of snowpack conditions.
Keywords: explosives, layer compression, blasting cap directionality
Digital Abstract Not Available