Item: Snow temperature and water outflow during rain and melt; milford highway, new zealand
Title: Snow temperature and water outflow during rain and melt; milford highway, new zealand
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 2000 International Snow Science Workshop, October 1-6, Big Sky, Montana
Authors: W. Carran, S. Hall, C. Kendall, A. Carran, and H. Conway, Works Infrastructure, New Zealand and University of Washington, U.S.A.
Abstract: Avalanches often release within a few minutes after the onset of rain on new snow. The avalanche potential remains high until drainage through the snow· pack has been established; tracking infiltration and outflow of water is key to improving predictions of snow stability .during rain and melt. Measurements of snow temperature near the start zones of avalanches that threaten the Milford Highway are used to track infiltration; liquid water is assumed to be present when the temperature is DoC. A Iysimeter is used to measure the time of water outflow from the base of the snow. Results show that the time between the onset of rain and first outflow depends on the rate of input as well as the stratigraphy of the snow pack. A large flux of water infiltrates through homogeneous snow faster than a small flux through a layered snow pack.
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Keywords: snow, rain, avalanches
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