Item: Snow shear strength under different stress rates and avalanche release
Title: Snow shear strength under different stress rates and avalanche release
Proceedings: 2010 International Snow Science Workshop
Authors: Pavel Chernous1 Nikolay Barashev1 Yuri Fedorenko2 Evgeniy Podolsky3 Osamu Abe4 Kouichi Nishimura3 1. Center for Avalanche Safety, “Apatit” JSC, Kirovsk, Russian Federation; 2. Polar Geophysical Institute, Apatity, Russian Federation; 3. Nagoya
Abstract: The results of an influence of additional high rate shear and normal stresses on shear strength of snow samples in stressed conditions (subjected constant shear stress) have been submitted. The field experiments have been carried out in the Khibini Mountains (Russia) and laboratory ones in Shinjo Cryospheric Environment Simulator (Japan). An effect of oscillation of the stresses on shear strength and avalanche release has been considered. An effectiveness of the influence of low and high rate stresses on the shear strength is compared. High rate stresses are significantly more effective for avalanche release. Different mechanisms of snow instability appearance caused by different types of short term loadings are considered. An interpretation of shear frame tests for snow stability assessments is suggested. A snow block model for slab avalanche release taking into account long term loadings (caused by snowfalls) and short term ones (caused by seismicity or air shock wave) has been described. The work was partly supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 05-05-64368-a).
Keywords: avalanche release, stress rates, shinjo cryospheric environment simulator, khibini mountains
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