Item: Observations of sun crust formation
Title: Observations of sun crust formation
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 1994 International Snow Science Workshop, Snowbird, Utah, USA
Authors: Toshihiro Ozeki, Eizi Akitaya, and Keisuke Suzuki
Abstract: The mechanism of sun crust formation was investigated through field observations. During the observations, sun crust formed 12 times. The sun crust is a thin ice layer made of ice particles. With the sun crust formation, the local temperature beneath it rose and internal melting occurred. This led to the formation of cavities under the sun crust. The energy balance calculation of the sun crust revealed that the shortwave radiation absorbed was balanced with the total of net longwave radiative flux, latent heat flux, and sensible heat flux. Further. down the snow pack, shortwave radiation penetrated through the surface layer, was absorbed and internal melting occurred. The sources of H20 for sun crust formation were investigated through the fluctuations of oxygen-18 concentration of the sun crust. The isotopic composition changed with sun crust formation: 8 value of sun crust had a. tendency to increase (heavier water) with time, and was larger (heavier water) than that of the snows beneath it.
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Keywords: heat, metamorphism, sun crust, ice particles
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