Item: Canadian guidelines for observations in avalanche forecasting
Title: Canadian guidelines for observations in avalanche forecasting
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 1980 International Snow Science Workshop, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Authors: G.L. Freer, British Columbia, Ministry of Transportation and Highways, Victoria, B.C.
Abstract: Internationally, observations for snow stability evaluation and avalanche hazard forecasting have been developed over many years through research and practical experience. Details regarding these observations can be found in the literature. In Canada, these observations have been used and further developed to suit local needs and operations. The early use and development of these observations was by the National Research Council and Parks Canada in Rogers Pass, British Columbia, beginning in 1956. The observations used and developed at this operation form the basis for most of the snow and avalanche standards used in Canada today. During the early 1970's, a need developed for trained personnel capable of providing avalanche safety programs for mining operations, ski areas, highways, and railways. Training courses were developed and with these came increased standardization of observations of the snowpack, weather, and avalanches, to assist operational personnel in establishing programs of avalanche management.
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Keywords: hazard, avalanche safety, avalanche management, skiing
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