Item: Surface tension of snow slopes and avalanche control
Title: Surface tension of snow slopes and avalanche control
Proceedings: Proceedings of the 1976 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta
Authors: R. Hakabayashi
Abstract: It is known that snow metamorphism is initially driven by the tendency of individual snow grains toward minimum surface area (Kuroiwa, 1976). Dendritic arms and other surface protrusions disappear as material is transferred by diffusion to either free crystal faces or to bonds between crystals. This type of metamorphism produces a volumetric contraction of the layer (Kojima, 1967; Nakamura and Kenmotsu, 197l). The contraction may be apparent in laboratory uniaxial tests. For example, Shinojima (1967) performed slow uniaxial tests on snow in compression and tension. He found that poisson's ratio (ratio of lateral deformation to axial deformation) was approximately zero in compressive tests, and approximately 0.5 in tension tests. This behaviour can be explained by assuming that snow contraction is significant when samples are loaded at slow rates.
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Keywords: diffusion, fracturing, avalanche release, tension tests
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